• Altmetrics: a project that produces article level metrics of scholarly articles from information collected from the Internet, such as social media sites, newspapers, and other sources.

  • Arbodat: a database program based on MS Access. It enables interconnecting of several data-tables comprising data of archeobotanical analyses, details of archaeological excavations as well as data about ecological and other traits of plant taxa.

  • Archaeobotany: the study of plant remains from archaeological sites.

  • Article processing charge (APC): also known as a publication fee, is a fee which is sometimes charged to authors to make a work available open access in either an open access journal or hybrid journal. This fee may be paid by the author, the author’s institution, or their research funder.



  • Citizen science: The involvement of members of the public in scientific research.

  • Contributing guidelines: Guidelines outlining how a person should go about contributing to an open source project.

  • Creative commons: a suite of standardized licences that allow copyright holders to grant some rights to users by default. CC licences are widely used, simple to use, machine readable, and have been created by legal experts. There are a variety of CC licences, each of which use one or more clauses. Some licences are compatible with Open Access in the Budapest sense (CC0 or those carrying the BY, SA, and ND clauses), and some are not (carrying the NC clause).


  • Data paper: is a peer reviewed document describing a dataset, published in a peer reviewed journal. It makes datasets more findable and accessible.

  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI): a unique text string that is used to identify digital objects such as journal articles, data sets or open source software releases. A DOI is one type of Persistent Identifier (PID).


  • EDI: Equity, diversity and inclusion.


  • FAIR Data: FAIR Data are Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Re-usable, in order to facilitate knowledge discovery by assisting humans and machines in their discovery of, access to, integration and analysis of, task-appropriate scientific data and their associated algorithms and workflows.


  • Git: is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency.

  • Github: is a coporation that provides hosting for software development and version control using Git. It is free to use and is commonly used to host open-source projects.

  • Gold route: the Gold route to open access is delivered via publishing an article in a journal. The journal may be an open access journal (pure open access), or a subscription based journal (hybrid open access) that offers an open access option. This is currently paid for by an APC.

  • Green route: the Green route to open access is delivered via self-archiving (depositing) an output into a repository. There are two types of repositories, institutional and subject repositories.


  • Hybrid journal: is a subscription journal in which some of the articles are open access. This status typically requires the payment of a publication fee (also called an article processing charge or APC) to the publisher in order to publish an article open access, in addition to the continued payment of subscriptions to access all other content.


  • Issue: the GitHub term for tasks, enhancements, and bugs for your projects.




  • License: is a document that provides legally binding guidelines for the use and distribution of software and other works published on the internet.


  • Metadata: metadata provide a basic description of the data, often including authorship, dates, title, abstract, keywords, and license information. They serve first and foremost the findability of data (e.g. creator, time period, geographic location).

  • Milestone: an event or state marking a specific stage in development on the project.



  • Open access: the practice through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers.

  • Open data: data that anyone can access, use and share.

  • Open education: education without academic admission requirements and is typically offered online. Open education broadens access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems.

  • Open hardware: physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open-design movement.

  • Open lab/notebooks: laboratory research records, diaries, journals, workbooks etc., offered online free of cost with terms that allow reuse and redistribution of the recorded material.

  • Open materials: sharing of research materials, for example, biological and geological samples, is another Open Science practice.

  • Open methods/protocols: is to document and communicate your research methods unambiguously, so that other researchers can easily replicate your exact procedures.

  • Open peer review: peer validation process conducted openly on the Internet.

  • Open reproducible research: the act of practicing Open Science and the provision of offering to users free access to experimental elements for research reproduction.

  • Open repositories: open archives that host scientific literature and make their content freely accessible to everyone in the world.

  • Open science: the movement to make scientific research (including publications, data, physical samples, and software) transparent and accessible to all.

  • Open source: software where the source code is available free of cost with terms that allow dissemination and adaptation.

  • Open workflow tools: apparatuses and services that promote open scientific projects.


  • Peer community in (PCI): is a non-profit scientific organization that aims to create specific communities of researchers reviewing and recommending, for free, unpublished preprints in their field (i.e. unpublished articles deposited on open online archives like arXiv and bioRxiv1).

  • Phytoliths: microscopic silica bodies formed in living plant cells.

  • Post-print: is a digital draft of a research journal article after it has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication, but before it has been typeset and formatted by the journal.

  • Pre-print: a version of a scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a scientific journal.

  • Preregistration: researchers have the option or are required to submit important information about their study (for example: research rationale, hypotheses, design and analytic strategy) to a public registry before beginning the study. Preregistration can help counter reporting bias.



  • README file: a document that introduces an open project to the public and any potential contributors.

  • Registered report: a published report describing the hypotheses and planned method of a study, before the data is collected. Also known as a ‘pre-registration’ or ‘pre-reg’.

  • Repository or repo: a collection of documents related to your project, in which you create and save new code or content.

  • Roadmap: a document outlining the schedule of work to be done on a project.





  • Version Control: version control is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information in a logical and persistent manner, allowing for both track changes and the ability to revert a piece of information to a previous revision.